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Mission Statement

The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers was organized in 1893, to advance the art, science, and practice of naval architecture, shipbuilding and marine engineering.  For over a century members have included commercial and governmental practitioners, students, and educators of naval architecture, shipbuilding, and marine and ocean engineering.  

SNAME encourages the exchange and recording of information, sponsors applied research, offers career guidance, supports education, and enhances the professional status and integrity of its membership.


Committee Contacts

THE SOCIETY OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS & MARINE ENGINEERS (SNAME)

WESTERN EUROPE SECTION (WES)

 

 
 

OFFICERS AND COMMITTEE MEMBERS 2018-2020


Chair, (Sections Committee Member, Membership and Council)
KEITH LILLEY
Email: klilley@outlook.com
Mobile: +44 7533 035035

 Vice-Chair
NITIN TYAGI
ABS Europe, Ltd.
Email: ntyagi@eagle.org
Telephone: +44 20 7377 4553

Secretary
VIVIANA CARTA
Longitude
Email: cartaviviana@gmail.com
Mobile: +44 798 681 2506


Treasurer, (Fellows Committee Member)
JONATHAN MORLEY
Lloyds Register
Email: jonathandmorley@gmail.com
Mobile: +44 7968 091922

Past Chair/Adviser, Jr. Vice-President-International, SNAME  (Executive Member, Council Member, T & R Committee Member – Ship Design, SD-4 Co-Chair, Symposia Committee Member, Nominating Committee Member, RINA/IMO Committee Member)
LOURDES ELONA-LILLEY (NINA)
Email: snamewes16@gmail.com
Mobile: +44 7479639770
 
Membership Chair
ROBERT JAMES PRIOR 
TMC Marine
Email: rp@tmcmarine.com

Telephone: +44 20 7237 2617

Technical & Research/Paper Chair (T & R Committee Member -Ship Design, SD-4 Co-Chair)
KEITH W. HUTCHINSON
Safinah  Ltd.
Email: keith.hutchinson@safinah.co.uk
Telephone: +44 1670 519 900
 
Young Professional Chair
BLANCA PENA
University College London (UCL)
Email: pena.blanca@outlook.com
Mobile: +44 7341337870
 
Educator (Faculty Advisor)
IRAKLIS LAZAKIS
Strathclyde University 
Email: iraklis.lazakis@strath.ac.uk
Telephone: +44 141 548 3070


Electronic Media and Communication Representative
TUN TUN MIN
ABS Europe, Ltd.
Email: tmin@eagle.org
Telephone: +44 20 7377 4496

Committee Members

MARY ZAGORITOU
Cuboid
Email: mzagoritou@hotmail.com
Mobile: +44 7421 824863

CONSTANTIN CORNICIUC
Lloyds Register
Email: constantin.corniciuc@lr.org
Mobile: +44 77 4747 3736

SERDAR ISIK
Brookes Bell
Email:  serdar.sik@brookesbell.com
Telephone: +44 20 8300 0190

RODRIGO PEREZ FERNANDEZ
SENER
Email: Rodrigo.Fernadez@sener.es
Telephone: +34 666 423 062

 RICCARDO PORCU
Longitude
Email: riccardof.porcu@gmail.com
Telephone: +44 7490 1922 81

ANTONIO GALLARDO
Lloyds Register
Email: agm.gallardo@gmail.com
Telephone: +44
7840 191180

Faculty Advisors & Student Chairs

EMA MUK-PAVIC
University College London (UCL)
Email: e.muk-pavic@ucl.ac.uk
Telephone: +44 20 7679 3252

JEAN-MARC BONELLO
Email:jean-marc.bonello15@ucl.ac.uk

KAYVAN PAZOUKI

University of Newcastle
Email: kayvan.pazouki@newcastle.ac.uk

Telephone: +44 191 208 5865

JUNWEI FAN
Email: fanjw007@outlook.com
Telephone number:+447491 086186

CEFERINO JOGNO, JR

NAMEI Polytechnic Instit:ute

Email: engrcajogno2007@yahoo.com

Telephone +63 2 531 8437

NINA MONTIFAR ELONA
Email: nina.elona@outlook.com
Telephone: +63 956 3638638

IRAKLIS LAZAKIS
Strathclyde University 
Email: iraklis.lazakis@strath.ac.uk
Telephone: +44 141 548 3070

DIMITRIOS TSEVDOS
Email: dimtsevdos@gmail.com
Telephone Number: +447930 110919


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Announcements

  • SNAME WES 10TH ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM

    Please register for the forthcoming 10th Annual Symposium to be held on board "HQS Wellington" . It will be held on Friday, 11 October 2019 from 9:30 AM-5:00 PM.
    The theme of this event is new technology.

    HQS Wellington is docked at Temple Stairs, Victoria Embankment, London WC28 2PN (near Temple Tube Station)
  • SMC 2018 Paper Contest Winners

    Congratulations to Antonio Gallardo of LR for winning the 2018 Graduate Paper Honor Prize entitled "Investigation of Air Lubrication Effect on Ship Friction Resistance". He was the 1st prize winner of SNAME Western Europe's Paper Contest 2017.

    Congratulations to Konstantinos Tsitsilonis of University of Strathclyde  for winning the 2018 Graduate Paper Award entitled "Systematic Method for Ship's Main Energy Management: The Case Study of a VLCC ". He was the 2nd prize winner of SNAME Western Europe's Paper Contest 2017.
  • Scholarship

    Congratulations to Kritonas Dionysiou for receiving the Robert N. Herbert scholarship. 

    He is a student of University of Strathclyde, Scotland, UK and the past student chair of University of Strathclyde's  SNAME Student section.

    Congratulations to Margot G. C. Cocard of Southampton University as a recipient of 2018 Graduate Scholarship from SNAME. At present she is a PhD student of Strathclyde University.

    Congratulations to Jaqueline Hong of University of Antwerp as a recipient of 2018 David A. O'Neil Scholarship.

    Congratulations to Akmal Hakim Mohamed Rashid of University of Newcastle as a recipient of
    Tommy L. Richards Graduate Scholarship. 
     
    Congratulations to Dimitrios M. Theofanidis of CASS Business School, London (former student of NTUA). His scholarship was awarded by NTUA Faculty Advisor who received the 2018 Bruce & Dorothy Rylander Johnson Faculty Award

Paper Contest 2019

PAPER CONTEST 2019

 
Final Paper to be  Submitted on Friday, 7th June 2019.


 For the fourth year in a row, SNAME WES is organising a paper contest during the 2nd half of 2018. This is a good opportunity for students and young professionals of 35 years of age and under to have an opportunity to read a paper to SNAME WES and publish the paper on the SNAME website.

 OBJECTIVE

Write and present a paper of maximum 10 pages discussing a technical or commercial concept related to ship design, shipbuilding, naval architecture, marine or offshore engineering.

 POSSIBLE SUBJECT

Offshore wind industry, oil and gas, innovations relevant to shipbuilding, manufacturing industries, energy efficiencies, hydrodynamics, structures, stability, new materials, equipment, propulsion aspects, resistance, ship design, etc.

WHO CAN PARTICIPATE?

Open to students and professionals of 35 years old and under associated with the marine industry.  He or she is to be a member of SNAME WES on the submittal of the final paper.

SCHEDULE

Abstract: A short paragraph relating to the potential paper to be preferably submitted by Friday 23rd November 2018 but not later than Friday, 15th February 2019 to SNAME WES Secretary, Ms. Viviana Carta at email address cartaviviana@viviana.com, , cc Blanca Pena at Pena.Blanca@outlook.com

 Final Paper to be submitted by Friday, 7th June  2019. Decision announced on Friday 5th July 2019.

PAPER_CONTEST_2019__1___1_.docx
PC_19_APPLICATION__1_.docx

MEDALS_-PRIZE.docx_
CERT_-PAPER_CONTEST_SAMPLE.pdf
Author_Template_2018.doc

Student Sections and Events

NAMEI Polytechnic Institute

Strathclyde University

 TU DELFT

University College London

University of Newcastle

 

 



NAMEI POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE 3RD ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM
MANILA, PHILIPPINES
NAMEI Polytechnic Institute Conducted their 3rd Annual Symposium
on Saturday, 26 January 2019 at the Audio Visual Room of NAMEI
One of the guest speaker was Michael Taylor, Director of Global Outreach
and Strategic Initiatives, SNAME.


As part of their Symposium is a Design competition
NAMEI


NAMEI
Champion of the Water Grand Prix
Design Comp -NAMEI

UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE'S  3RD ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM - GLASGOW, SCOTLAND

University of Strathclyde conducted their 3rd Annual Symposium on Friday,
15 February 2019. It was attended by students, professionals composed of SNAME
WES officers and committee member together with the Regional Vice-President International
SNAME.

Certificate of Appreciation was given to Keith W. Hutchinson of Safinah Group and
T & R/Paper Chair , WES by Keith Lilley, Chair, SNAME WES for his support to UoS
by conducting a presentation entitled "Near-shore Floating Liquefied Gas Storage and
Processing". Not on the picture was David C. Dobson of Safinah Group.


Cert of Appreciation

Certificate of Appreciation was given to Jonathan D. Morley of LR  and
Treasurer, WES by Keith Lilley, Chair, SNAME WES for his support to UoS
by conducting a presentation entitled "The New OSV  Chemical Code, How

Will It Affect Offshore Support Vessel".



Certificate of Appreciation was given to Fotios Stefanidis, PhD Student and Past
Chair of UoS SNAME Student Section by Keith Lilley, Chair, SNAME WES for his
support to UoS by conducting a presentation entitled "Establishing A New Generation
of Ultra Safe Mega Liners".



Cert Appreciation
Certificate of Appreciation was given to Konstantinos Tsitsilonis  Past Vice-Chair of UoS SNAME
Student Section by Keith Lilley, Chair, SNAME WES for his support to UoS
by conducting a presentation entitled "The Scrubber Market's Current State and
Outlook and the Technoeconomic Challenges Faced by the Industry.


Cert of Appreciation
Certificate of Appreciation was given to Michail Cheliotis Past Chair of UoS SNAME
Student Section and PhD Student of UoS by Keith Lilley, Chair, SNAME WES for his support to UoS
by conducting a presentation entitled "Making Sense of Data for Maintenance in the Maritime Industry.

Cert of Appreciation
Graduate Paper Award was given to Konstantinos Tsitsilonis  Past Vice-Chair of UoS SNAME
Student Section by Nina Lilley, Past Chair, SNAME WES and Regional Vice-President
International SNAME


K Tsitsilonis
Scholarship awards were given to Kritonas Dionysiou(University Strahclyde) and Margo Cocard
Southampton University (now student of University of Strathclyde). Dr. Julia Race, Department Head of
Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering with Keith Lilley, Chair WES and Nina Lilley, Regional
Vice-President-International, SNAME

Keith Lilley, Chair of SNAME WES has given Nikolaos Koutsodontis, Chair of University
of Strathclyde SNAME Student a service certificate as recognition of his service for 2018-2019.

Service Certificate

UoS SNAME Symposium


Networking event organised by the officers of University of Strathclyde SNAME Student
Section of Glasgow, Scotland. The Royal Yacht Britannia was docked in Edinburgh,
Scotland which is 1-1/4  hour away from Glasgow.


2019






UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE- SNAME STUDENT SECTION'S VISIT TO
 ROYAL DEVONPORT DOCKYARD/ BABCOCK INTERNATIONAL LOCATED
AT PLYMOUTH , ENGLAND

The student members of SNAME from University of Newcastle visited Royal Devonport Dockyard 
located at Plymouth,  England on 22nd March 2019. THis visit was coordinated by Jun Wei Fan,
Chair of the University of Newcastle SNAME Student Section. 


Babcock Yard Visit by NCL

Awards

LEADING MARITIME PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY - IMC GOLDEN SHIELD EXCELLENCE AWARDS 2017, UK CHAPTER
SUPER SECTION (2014- 2015) , (2015-2016) & (2016-2017)

  

 Picture taken with  Nitin Tyagi (Secretary WES), Tun Tun Min (Electronic Media and Marketing Communication Representative) , Lourdes (Nina) Lilley (Chair, SNAME WES), Martin Toyen  (President of SNAME) and Keith Lilley (Vice-chair/membership chair) (Top Picture)  Below   is the Certificate for Leading Maritime Society with Trophy given by IHC on 17 September 2017 at Lloyds London Building to commemorate the Maritime's Week. Nina Lilley, JRVP -International SNAME (Past Chair 2013-2018)

Meeting Report 2018 and 2019

24 September 2018
Orfeas Protopsaltis of University of Strathclyde
was given Certificate of Appreciation  and
WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair
for his presentation entitled The Application
 and Potential of 3-D Printing in the Marine
Industry 

 12 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Demetres Armanes of  ABS Piraeus  was given Certificate of Appreciation and WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair for his presentation entitled
" Autonomous Ship-An ABS Perspective."


Symposium 2018
 12 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Henrik Tunfors of  Swedish Transport was  given Certificate of Appreciation  and WES mug
 
for his presentation IMOs Work on Autonomous Ship - A Progress Report  by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair

Symposium 2018
12 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Dr. Rodrigo Perez Fernandez  of  SENER, Spain was given Certificate of Appreciation  and WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair
for his presentation entitled Shipyard 4.0 and Internet of Ships, the IOT Applied to Shipbuilding

Symposium 2018

12 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Dr. Iraklis Lazakis of  University of Strathclyde was given Certificate of Appreciation  and WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair for his presentation entitled Predictive Ship Operations and Maintenance, What's Next?

Symposium 2018

12 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Dr. Andrea Coraddu of  University of Strathclyde was given Certificate of Appreciation  and WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair
for his presentation entitled Artificial Intelligence and Big Data - A Marine Engineering Perspective

Symposium
12 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Rayan Bou Chahine  of  University of Strathclyde was given First Prize Certificate , medal and WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair Blanca Pena, YP Chair and Keith W Hutchinson T & R/Paper Chair for his paper entitled "Air Supported Vessel's Efficiency Compared to Standardized Design by Using CFD
 

Symposium 2018

12 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Dimitrios Tsiropoulos of  Atkins Global was given Second Prize Certificate , medal and WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair Blanca Pena, YP Chair and Keith W Hutchinson T & R/Paper Chair for his paper entitled "A Sequential Approach to Internal Structural Loads Derivation of FOWT Support Platforms"

Paper Contest 2018
12 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Viviana Carta  of  Longitude and Secretary of WES, was given Certificate  Appreciation and WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME  WES Chair for submitting a paper. entitled "Ship Shell: A Design Tool For All Steel and SPS Shell Opening". Not on the picture was Riccardo Porcu of Longitude who was her co-author.


Paper Contest 2018

2 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Rafael d' Amore Domenech of Technical University of Madrid and Jacobo Arevalo were given Graduate Honour Paper Prize Certificate as  winners of SMC 2017 and WES mug by  Nina Lilley,  JRVP - International , SNAME  for their paper entitled "Towable TLP Solution for Offshore Wind" They were  also recipient of 1st  prize Paper Contest  2016 by SNAME WES.



Paper Contest

2 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Akshay Bhatt of Rolls-Royce
was  given Graduate Prize Certificate as  winners of SMC 2017 and WES mug by Nina Lilley,  JRVP - International , SNAME for their paper entitled Amphibious Assault and Aviation TrainingShip Class: Landing Helicopter Assault and Training. Three of his co-authors namely: Andrew Cooper,  James Harris
and Gabriela Hartle.
They were also recipient of 2nd prize Paper Contest 2016 by SNAME WES.



SMC Paper Contest 2017

2 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Luke Farrier
University College London (UCL) was given Certificate of Appreciation  and mug by Nina Lilley,  JRVP - International , SNAME  for his leadership as SNAME UCL Student chair.



2 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Officers, Committee Members , FacultyAdvisors (FA) and Student Chairs 

L-R  Dr. Kayvan Pazouki, Newcastle University Faculty Advisor, Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair,  Christopher Ryan, Vice Chair, UCL, Nikoulas Koutsodontis, University of Strathclyde  Student Chair ,Blanca Pena, YP Chair,  Nina Lilley, JRVP-International, SNAME, Viviana Carta, Secretary WES, Rodrigo Perez Fernandez, Committee  Member, Jonathan Morley, Treasurer, Keith W. Hutchinson, T & R /Paper Chair , Robert J. Prior, Membership Chair, Nitin Tyagi, Vice-chair, Dr. Iraklis Lazakis, Faculty Advisor, University of  Strathclyde and Tun Tun Min, Electronic Media and Communications Representative

Symposium

2 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Officers, Committee Members ,  JRVP- International, SNAME, Faculty Advisor and SNAME Student Members of University of Strathclyde

Symposium 2018


2 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Officers, Committee Members ,  JRVP- International, SNAME, and SNAME  Student Members of University College London
Symposium 2018


12 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Officers, Committee Members ,  JRVP- International, SNAME, Faculty Advisor and SNAME  Student Members of University of  Newcastle




12 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
Officers, Committee Members ,  JRVP- International, SNAME, and SNAME Student Members of Polytechnic University of Madrid

Symposium 2018



12 October 2018, 9th Annual Symposium
(L-R) Dr. Kayvan Pazouki, Newcastle University Faculty Advisor, Keith Lilley SNAME WES Chair, Antonio Gallardo, LR, Demetres Armanes, ABS Pireaus, Nikolaous Kootsodontis , Strathclyde Student Chair,  Dr. Rodrigo Perez Fernandez Committee Member, Dimitrios Tsevdos, Vice Chair Strathclyde University Chair, Blanca Pena, YP Chair, Nina Lilley, JRVP-International, SNAME, Soe Tint Myanmar Administration, Jonathan Morley, Treasurer, WES, Cho Cho Khine, Keith W. Hutchinson, T & R/Paper Chair, Rob Prior, Membership Chair, Tun Tun Min, Communications Representative, Nitin Tyagi, Vice-chair and Dr. Iraklis Lazakis, Faculty Advisor, University of Strathclyde.

Symposium 2018



13 October 2018, Networking Event On Board HMS Belfast, London


Ship Bell
University of Strathclyde SNAME students with Jonathan Morley, Treasurer, WES.



HMS Belfast

Officers, committee members and students met at Costa Coffee for a snack before heading home.

Costa Networking


















24 October at SNAME Maritime Convention -125th Anniversary, Providence, Rhode Island

Picture L-R Michael Taylor, Director of Global Outreach and Strategic Initiatives, Keith Lilley Section Chair
of Western Europe and Nina Lilley, Regional Vice-President , International SNAME. Michael attended the
Western Europe Section’s  9 th Annual Symposium held at ABS Europe, Ltd. on 12 October 2018.





24 October at SNAME Maritime Convention -125th Anniversary, Providence, Rhode Island

Picture (L-R) Nina Lilley, Regional Vice-President, International SNAME, Marty Toyen,

President of SNAME and Thalia Kruger, SNAME. Both Nina and Thalia were awarded

the Fellow status during this event - SMC 2018, SNAME 125 Years Anniversary

Fellow Picture



24 October at SNAME Maritime Convention -125th Anniversary, Providence, Rhode Island

Third from L-R is Antonio Gallardo of LR . He was awarded the Graduate Honour Prize

during the event. He was also the 1st prize recipient of medal for submitting a  paper on

WES Paper Contest 2017.


Friday, 16 November 2018 -SNAME Introduction Day at University Polytechnic of Madrid

 (L-R) Keith Lilley, Vladimir Meca,  Dr. Prof. Ramon Nunez, Director, Nina Lilley, Dr. Prof. Teresa Leo Meno, Dr.  Rodrigo Perez Fernandez,  Rafael d' Amore Domenech and Antonio Villarba .

 UPM Intro Day


Vladimir  Meca student of  University Polytechnic of Madrid was given Certificate  Appreciation and WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME  WES Chair for  submitting a paper. entitled " Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-SteamTurbine System for Marine Applications"


Paper Contest Certificate 2018

Wednesday,  21 November 2018 -SNAME Introduction Day at University of Newcastle
Dr. Raouf Kattan of Safinah, Ltd. was awarded his Fellow Certificate and pin by Nina Lilley, Regional Vice-President, International, SNAME


Fellows Award


Akmal Hakim Mohamed Raship of University of Newcastle was given a Scholarship Certificate for Tommy L. Richards Graduate Scholarship.

Akmal -NCL


Angkang Cheng of University of Newcastle was given Certificate of Appreciation  and mug by Nina Lilley,  JRVP - International , SNAME  for his leadership as SNAME University Newcastle Student chair.


Angkang Cheng



15 January 2019
Jonathan Morley of LR and Treasurer of WES  was given Certificate of 
Appreciation and WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair for his presentation entitled “ The New OSV Chemical Code, How Will It  Effect the Offshore Vessels”





12 February 2019
Keith  W. Hutchinson of Safinah Group and T & R/Paper Chair  of WES together with David C. Dobson  were given Certificate of 
Appreciation  by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair for their presentation entitled “ LNG Maritime Transportation and Utilisation.


Keith H and David Dobson
12 February 2019 Presentation

         12 February 2019 Presentation


David Dobson - Support

In addition to other attendees from various offices, the following officers and committee members attended the 12 February 2019 presentation of
Keith Hutchinson, fellow SNAME WES 

(L-R)   Tun Tun Min (Media Communications Representative), Nina Lilley (JRVP International, SNAME,Jonathan Morley  (Treasurer-WES), Robert Prior (Membership Chair), Mary Zagoritou (Committee Member, Keith Lilley (Chair, WES) and Keith W. Hutchinson ( T & R/Paper Chair).


12 February 2019

5 March 2019
JP Cavanna, Head of Business Development and Cyber Security Leader of LR was given Certificate of Appreciation  and WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair
for his presentation entitled ”Lloyd’s Register’s Approach to Cyber Security in Marine and Offshore”-An Update”



9 April 2019
Dr. Rodrigo Perez Fernandez, Technical Manager, SENER and part time professor of Technical University of Madrid was given Certificate of Appreciation  and WES mug by Keith Lilley, SNAME WES Chair for his presentation entitled ”Marine Propeller Geometry Modelling through  B-Splines Surfaces"

RODRIGO PRESENTATION

9 April 2019
Picture taken during the Western Europe's AGM. It was attended by Suzanne Beckstoffer, SNAME President.

From (L-R) Jonathan Morley, Treasurer, Tun Tun Min , Webmaster and Communication Representative, Antonio Gallardo (newly elected committee member), Keith W. Hutchinson , T & R Paper Chair, Susan Beckstoffer, SNAME President, Keith Lilley, Western Europe Section Chair, Lourdes Nina Lilley, Regional Vice President-International, SNAME and Past Chair WES, Blanca Pena, YP Chair and Dr. Rodrigo Perez Fernandez committee member.


with SNAME President



From (L-R) Jaime Perez, member, Jonathan Morley, Treasurer, Tun Tun Min , Webmaster and Communication Representative, Antonio Gallardo (newly elected committee member recepient of SNAME Maritime Convention Paper Awards), Keith W. Hutchinson , T & R Paper Chair, Susan Beckstoffer, SNAME President, Keith Lilley, Western Europe Section Chair, Lourdes Nina Lilley, Regional Vice President-International, SNAME and Past Chair WES, Blanca Pena, YP Chair  Dr. Rodrigo Perez Fernandez committee member. and Jaqueline Hong member and scholarship recepient of SNAME. She is presently attending the University of Antwerp, Belgium.

Scholarship & Paper Contest











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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