Though salvage may be classified as a type of operation there can be times when a salvor’s work is connected to the last phase of a vessel’s life.  This is where recycling comes into play.  After a vessel has served its useful life there is a proper and efficient way to recycle the asset so that its component parts can be properly put back to work.  Recycling expertise is required for completing this end of life phase for the asset.


Recycler/Salvor Papers

Our Technical Library contains thousands of papers of interest to Recyclers/Salvors. Below is a sample of papers that are available for access to members by using a free download or to non-members for purchase.

Modern Analytical Techniques in Salvage Engineering Using Portable Computers, PORRICELLI, 1983 

Author(s): Porricelli J D; Boyd J H; Schleiffer K E Published: 12/31/1982 

The Development and implementation of any successful salvage strategy is contingent upon a proper evaluation of the situation and a comprehensive knowledge of salvage methods and experience in their use. Marine salvors must possess many skills, including an understanding of and sensitivity to all of the applicable engineering factors, the sea, and ships and their interaction with one another in a salvage situation. As Admiral Sullivan wrote 35 years ago, "Salvage is a branch of engineering, and salvage work, if it is to be successful, should, like other engineering work, be planned only when there is a complete appreciation of all of the factors influencing it”. Salvage engineering computations are a series of naval architectural calculations that provide information required by the salvor to develop his overall salvage strategy and to insure that at any point in the physical implementation of that strategy, the ship is not placed in a more hazardous situation from both the stability and structural aspects. The justifiable concern of society for environmental protection has further amplified and compounded the need for systematic salvage procedures.

Marine Salvage, SULLIVAN, 1948 

Author(s): Sullivan W A Published: 12/31/1947 

Salvage is defined by the dictionary as the saving of ships and their cargo from the perils of the sea. It may vary from the work involved in towing in a small disabled vessel to that involved in the salvage of a large ship grounded and bilged badly on a rocky shore There are some well-recognized branches of ship salvage work and each branch has its own particular problems. Differences in the type of organizations required, in the methods of doing the work, in the facilities needed, and in the character of personnel required are most marked between the different branches. Some work which does not conform to the definition in the dictionary is often spoken of as a type of salvage because it is done by facilities maintained for salvage…


Author(s): LANE Published: 12/31/1982 

I have been asked to give a short talk tonight about a salvage job that my Company, Tracor Marine, completed this last winter for the Navy. You may know of Tracor Marine as the local ship repair facility in Port Everglades. What many of you don't know is that Tracor Marine is composed of three divisions the Shipyard Division, the Ocean Technology and Engineering Division and the Marine Services Division, head- quartered in Norfolk. Without going into detail, it is sufficient to say that the latter two divisions administer several large Navy contracts, one of which is the Gulf Zone Salvage Contract with the Supervisor of Salvage, U.S. Navy, covering a rather extensive area in the Caribbean and the Atlantic. The salvage effort was primarily a contest between man and the elements and the use of a lot of brute force. The techniques used were based on the years of salvage experience of the Salvage Master and the ever changing conditions on the site…

Salvage of U.S.S. Oklahoma, WHITAKER, 1944

Author(s): Whitaker F H Published: 12/31/1943 

During the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The U.S.S. Oklahoma capsized rapidly 151 degrees 30 minutes to port (away from shore), due to extensive torpedo damage on the port side. About 410 men were lost inside the ship, and most of their bodies were recovered, but not identified, during the salvage operations. However, during the day and night following the loss of the ship, more than thirty men were rescued alive through holes cut in the bottom of the hull by members of the ship`s company and by Navy Yard personnel. The Oklahoma was one of the older battleships completed in 1916 and later modernized in 1929 by the addition of blisters and other improvements. Its overall length is 583 feet and maximum beam 107 feet 11 inches, including blisters, and the longitudinal spacing of transverse frames is 4 feet…

The Righting Salvage of the Seaspan 240, FOWLIS, 1997

Author(s): John A. Fowlis Published: 2/18/1997 

The Seaspan 240 is a 12,300ton capacity flat deck bulk carrier barge 375' x 75' x 25' built at Yarrows Shipbuilding in 1966 for Island Tug and Barge Co. Ltd. Since launching, the barge has been in the bulk trade on the North American Pacific Coast.  On July 16 1996 while under tow, fully laden with a cargo of limestone, the barge capsized off the headland at Port Townsend Washington. After the incident the capsized barge was towed to Vancouver Shipyards Co. Ltd. in North Vancouver BC where the vessel was righted. This paper outlines the planning, preparation for, and results of, the righting salvage. The very successful salvage operation carried out on August 14 1996 represents a culmination of learned knowledge from other barge turnings over the last few years by Seaspan's marine and technical staff…

Salvage Equipment Used in Raising Submarine F-4, FURER, 1916 

Author(s): Furer J A Published: 12/31/1915  

The salvage methods used in raising wrecked vessels may be divided broadly into two classes. The most commonly applied method consists of restoring the buoyancy of a sufficient number of flooded compartments to float the vessel. This can be done in a number of ways. The usual method is for divers to make temporary repairs to the damaged underwater body. The compartments affected are then pumped out. More recently, successful wrecking jobs have been accomplished by sealing the decks over the flooded compartments and expelling the water through the damaged bottom by means of compressed air supplied from a tender.  In cases of ordinary. grounding, where perhaps no serious damage has been done to the underwater body, the vessel can often be sufficiently lightened by transferring or jettisoning enough cargo, or other heavy weights, to permit hauling the ship off at high tide. All of these methods fall under the general head of restoring lost buoyancy…

An Added Buoyancy Method for Calculating Ground Reaction, REED, 1995

Author(s): Phil Reed, Wiliam A. Plice Published: 3/2/1995 

Unlike the days when salvage calculations were done by hand and the results seasoned by the intuition of an experienced salvor, salvage engineering is quickly becoming a more meticulous science. Spurred by OPA 90 regulations which require access to software capable of evaluating the residual stability and structural strength of a vessel when aground, computers have become an everyday tool for the salvage engineer. With the introduction of the PC in the early 1980's, salvage engineers such as Speer, Porricelli et. Al., Peltzer et. al. and Clay were quick to recognized its potential in the salvage field. As computers have become smaller and more powerful, software has been developed specifically for the salvage engineer. While a far cry from the past, most of the available programs still calculate ground reaction using traditional methods developed to simplify hand calculations…

The Nuclear Hazards of the Recovery of the Nuclear Powered Submarine Kursk, DAVIDSON, 2003

Author(s): DAVIDSON Published: 12/31/2002 

On Saturday, 12 August 2000 and exactly at 7.29.50 GMT a small and relatively insignificant seismic disturbance was recorded by a Norwegian seismological station. It was followed one hundred and thirty-five seconds later with a much more significant event, equivalent to about 3 to 3.5 Richter scale. None of those at the recording stations in Norway, Finland, Scotland, Canada, Alaska and elsewhere realized that this second explosion marked the death knell of an advanced nuclear powered submarine in the Barents Sea. 
During the morning of 14 August the rescue centre at Bodø in northern Norway received rumor of an accident on board a then unknown Russian submarine somewhere north of Murmansk. This was the first inkling in the West of a very serious situation, the details of which were to unfurl over the following hours when it became apparent, and was subsequently confirmed by the Russian Federation (RF) Northern Fleet headquarters in Severomorsk, that a submarine had foundered…

Modeling Motion and Loads on Stranded Ships in Waves, SIMBULAN, 2003

Author(s): Michael Simbulan, Alan Brown, Jeffrey Mcquillan , Marte Gutierrez Published: 12/31/2002 

The serious consequences of ship grounding and collision necessitate the development of regulations and requirements for the subdivision and structural design of ships to reduce damage and environmental pollution, and improve safety. Tools are also required to aid salvors in post-casualty analysis and impact mitigation. Significant research has addressed the prediction of structural damage suffered by a ship while grounding (Brown et al 2000, Paik 2003), but far less research has considered the motion and loads on a ship after it has grounded (Paik and Pedersen 1997, McCormick and Hudson 2001). Ultimate hull failure, break-up and post-grounding cargo loss depend on the residual ultimate strength of the hull structure and on post-grounding structural loads…

Opa '90 and the OMI Charger Casualty, TREGLIA, 1994 

Author(s): Treglia T; Paskewich F; Stagg O Published: 12/31/1993 

Over the past decade, several catastrophic oil spills have polluted the marine environment of the United States. Most notably, in March, 1989, the EXXON VALDEZ grounded off the coast of Alaska and spilled over 11 million gallons of Alaskan crude oil into the pristine waters of Prince William Sound. Other major pollution incidents occurred when the MEGA BORG lost more than 4.5 million gallons of Angolan crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico in June, 1990 and when the AMERICAN TRADER spilled over 400,000 gallons of Alaskan crude oil off Huntington Beach, California in February, 1990. Each and similar incidents made a significant impact on U.S. coastal waters, tarnished the image of the tanker industry, and cumulatively encouraged the U.S. Congress to pass the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), resulting in the establishment of over ninety federal projects aimed at preventing and minimizing oil pollution. One of these projects amends the wording of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (U.S. Code 1321) to mandate the preparation of a Vessel Response Plan (VRP) for every tank vessel carrying oil in bulk in U.S. waters. Each VRP, which is submitted to the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) for review and approval, establishes a format for responding to all oil spills up to a worst case discharge of oil or the substantial threat of such a discharge.  Importantly, each VRP must identify a Qualified Individual (QI) who has full authority to implement oil spill removal action…

Scrapping Warships, ROSSELL, 1924 

Author(s): Rossell H E Published: 12/31/1923 7:00:00 PM 

After the World War, both Great Britain and the United States started to discard obsolete warships. These vessels were sold from time to time for scrap, and several wrecking concerns undertook the task of cutting them up for the salvage value of the metals they contained. The Disarmament Treaty signed August 17, 1923, provided for the demilitarization of a large number of modern war vessels within a period of six months from the signing of the treaty, and for the total demolition of these ships within a period of a year and a half from that date. The nations involved were confronted with the problem of disposing of these vessels to the best advantage, and they naturally turned to the firms which had had some previous experience in scrapping ships…

Raising the S. S. Segovia, NORTON, 1932

Author(s): Norton H F Published: 12/31/1931 

The S. S. Segovia, a passenger and  refrigerated  freight ship,  447  feet  long  overall,  by 60 feet beam, of about 7000 gross tons, fitted with accommodations  for about 100 passengers, which was being built by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company for the United Mail Steamship Company, a  subsidiary of the United Fruit Company, to be delivered January 30, 1932, caught fire in the No. 3 hold sometime during  the  night of December 19, 1931, from an  unknown  cause,  possibly from some burning  or welding previously clone on the ship. When the watchmen on the ship discovered the fire, about 4:30 a.m., it had gained so much headway that it quickly burst out of the No. 3 hatch in considerable volume. The fire departments of both the shipyard and the city were called immediately and answered promptly, but by the time they reached the ship the slight southwest breeze had carried the fire into the passenger quarters in the superstructure, and made the ship roost difficult of access.  The ship was moored to the north side of pier No. 1 with her stern in a westerly direction, toward the river…

DKM BISMARCK, A Marine Forensic Analysis with Lessons Learned for Modern Designers, CAMERON, 2006

Author(s): James Cameron, William H. Garzke, Jr., William Jurens, Kenneth Smith, Robert O. Dulin, Jr. - Panel SD-7, Marine Forensics Analysis (T&R Session Moderator: Al Brown) Published: 12/31/2005 7:00:00 PM

Summary of Presentation by Panel DS-7.

Brief History and Ship Characteristic.
Major Investigations of Wreck, 1989-2002.
Shell damage, Prince of Wales.
Torpedo Damage.
- HMS Victorious
- Battle of 27 MAY 1941
- Torpedo Damage Survey by James Cameron, May 2002
Shell damage
- Survey by James Cameron, May 2002
Important lessons learned.
Lessons for Warship Designers.