Operators put the accumulated output of the preceding Faces of SNAME to work.  In most cases this means years of service requiring maintenance, upgrades, conversion for new service.  These assets require specialized knowledge to maintain even if they are not in service.


Operator Papers

Our Technical Library contains thousands of papers of interest to Operators. Below is a sample of papers that are available for access to members by using a free download or to non-members for purchase.

Stern Boat Deployment Systems and Operability, SHEINBERG, 2003 

Author(s): Sheinberg R; Minnick P V; Beukema T G; Kauczynski W; Silver A L; Cleary C Published: 12/31/2002  

Ship-based boats are essential to the successful prosecution of many of the U.S. Coast Guard's seagoing missions. The ability to launch and recover boats in a broad range of environmental conditions is necessary to complete these missions. In recent years, boat deployment systems have evolved beyond the traditional side-davit system with dual falls, and now include systems like Rigid Hull Inflatable Boats (RHIB) deployed via stem ramps integrally designed into the transom of the mother ship. As part of the Coast Guard's need to conduct technical assessments of existing cutters and proposed ship designs to establish the effectiveness of the various boat deployment systems, engineering criteria and methodology must be available.

An Experimental Validation of an Evacuation Model using Data Sets Generated from Two Large Passenger Ships, Galea, 2013

Author(s): Galea E, Deere S, Brown R, Fillipidis L Published: 4/14/2015 

In 2002 the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced guidelines for undertaking full-scale evacuation analysis of large passenger ships using ship evacuation models (International Maritime Organization 2002). These guidelines, known as IMO MSC Circular 1033, were to be used to certify that passenger ship design was appropriate for full-scale evacuation. As part of these guidelines it was identified that appropriate full-scale ship-based evacuation validation data were not available to assess the suitability of ship evacuation models. Because suitable validation data were not available, a series of test cases was developed, which verified the capability of proposed ship evacuation software tools in undertaking simple simulations. However, these verification cases were not based on experimental data. Furthermore, successfully undertaking these verification cases does not imply that the evacuation model is validated or capable of predicting real evacuation performance.

The Design and Operational Implications of the IMO Polar Code, Kendrick, 2014

Author(s): Kendrick A Published: 1/7/2015  

The IMO’s mandatory International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (the Polar Code), introduces a range of design, equipment, crewing and operational requirements for most ships that operate both in the Arctic and the Antarctic. The expectation is that this will increase safety and reduce the risks of both accidental and operation pollution. The Code introduces new requirements and obligations for a range of stakeholders, including ship-owners, designers, mariners, national administrations and Recognized Organizations (ROs) acting on their behalf. Most requirements will apply to both new and existing ships. This paper presents and discusses some key aspects of the Code, and the challenges that will be involved in compliance.

Marine Systems in Refuse Hauling Infrastructure, DAIDOLA, 2003 

Author(s): Daidola J C; Rodi R C; Stazzone B; Brodsky H A; Filtz R L Published: 12/31/2002 

The collection and disposal of refuse is a massive industry spanning the entire globe. Major urban areas such as the New York City (NYC) may generate as much as 20,000 tons per day. Across the United States over a million tons are generated per day, around the world literally millions of tons per day. Collection of refuse begins at the source, usually by truck. Further complication has occurred with the recent separation of recyclable components. Although in many cases the collected material is transported directly by these trucks to local disposal sites, it is often brought to staging areas and then transported to its final destination. This latter approach has increased as local disposal sites have been eliminated due to depletion, environmental concerns, or public outcry.

Implementation of Free-Fall Lifeboats On Ships, NELSON, 1994 

Author(s): Nelson J K; Regan N B; Khandpur R; Landsburg A C; Markie R L Published: 9/30/1994 

MANY of the risks associated with conventional lifeboat systems have been substantially reduced by the freefall lifeboat. These risks include impact with the side of the ship during launch, the inability to move away from danger after the launch if the engine does not start, and the inability to launch the lifeboats from the high side of a listing vessel. These problems are minimized with the freefall lifeboat because it is not lowered into the sea. The freefall lifeboat falls freely into the sea, generating kinetic energy as it does so. The kinetic energy which is developed propels the lifeboat away from the distressed vessel during and immediately after water entry. The lifeboat moves away from danger even if the engine does not operate.

The Panama Canal Expansion and the Panamax Vessels of the Future, PAYER, 2006 

Author(s): Payer H; Brostella R Published: 12/31/2005 

The opening of the Panama Canal in 1914 changed world shipping fundamentally. Although its construction was originally conceived primarily out of US political interests and military necessities, its commercial importance to sea borne trade, not only for the US but for the world, became clear promptly. Over its 92year history the Panama Canal has played an important role in world shipping, commerce and politics. As recently as 20 years ago, the world merchant fleet was largely built considering the dimensions of the Panama Canal. The fleet was effectively divided into ships able to transit the Canal, that is up to Panamax size and those that were too large, called Post Panamax vessels. Post Panamax vessels were generally designed for specific cargoes and for specific routes not transiting the Canal, such as VLCCs, which, for example, carry crude oil from the Persian Gulf to the US, or Capesize bulk carriers designed to carry iron ore from Brazil to Northern Europe.

Disabled Ship Studies for the Polar Endeavour Class Tankers, LEVINE, 2005

Author(s): Levine R A; Witherspoon W; Tragardh P Published: 12/31/2004 
In 2001 Polar Tankers, Inc.  (formerly ARCO Marine, Inc.)2 introduced the first of a new generation of tank vessels to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) trade. These vessels, based on similar vessels in the North Sea, arc built with twin independent engine rooms, large oversized rudders and a bow thruster. They are twin­ screw. twin-rudder vessels with a 2200 kW bow thruster, making them amongst the most maneuverable non dynamic positioning tankers in the world. The propulsion system meets all requirements for certification, and 1s certified as a R2-S+ vessel under A BS Guidelines for Redundant Propulsion Systems [I]3.   Based on extensive computer modeling, model basin testing and full scale testing the Polar Endeavour class tankers meet all ABS required response criteria without additional assistance. Four of the Polar Endeavour class tankers have entered service, and the last is currently scheduled to enter service in early to mid-2006.