Engineers and designers describe principles that guide engineers and designers in their quest to develop safe and efficient solutions to problems their customers identify. These fit for purpose solutions can either start as new concepts or require conversion or adaptation of existing platforms. Here a concept is molded by production and operational realities so that the concept can take physical form. Engineers and designers touch manufacturing and ship production.


Our Technical Library contains thousands of papers of interest to Engineers/Designers. Below is a sample of papers that are available for access to members by using a free download or to non-members for purchase. 

Design and Service Experience of the Polar Endeavour Class Tankers, LEVINE, 2003 

Author(s): Levine R A Published: 12/31/2002

OPA90 not only created a requirement for new tankers to be fitted with double hulls, it also brought with it cargo owner liability. Cargo owner liability places financial responsibility not only on the Owner/Operator of the vessel, but on the cargo owner as well. For a company like Polar Tankers Inc., an Owner/Operator, and through its association with its parent company, a cargo owner, all responsibilities lie at one doorstep. It is recognized that the 80/20 rule applies to tanker accidents, that 80% are caused by human error, and 20% by mechanical failure. Polar had invested large sums of time and money in crew and officer training in order to reduce the human error portion of the 80%. However, there was still an inherent portion of the 80% that resulted from how U.S. tankers were acquired, and a majority portion of the 20% had gone without being addressed.

Concept Development, Detailed Design and Construction of the Three Forty Three – North America's Most Powerful Fireboat, ALLAN, 2010

Author(s): ALLAN Published: 12/31/2009 
Following the events of September 11, 2001, the City of New York commissioned the firm of McKinsey & Company to evaluate the status of the City`s infrastructure and emergency agencies. An additional evaluation was done by Cornell University. The McKinsey report recommended an expansion and increase in the capabilities of the Marine Division. Cornell suggested that any new fireboats provide pumping capacity that “exceeds the capability of the current fleet”. The Fire Department`s own Strategic Plan would call for an increase in marine capabilities to respond to the heightened threat environment, and the dramatic increase in water-borne traffic in the Port of New York/New Jersey.

GOALDS – Goal Based Damaged Stability - A New Approach to Passenger Ship Damage Stability and Safety, PAPANIKOLAOU, 2010 

Author(s): Papanikolaou A; Mains C; Rusaas S; Salek R; Tsakalakis N; Vassalos D; Zaraphonitis G Published: 9/30/2010 

In January 2009, the new harmonized probabilistic rules for ship subdivision became mandatory, initiating a new era in rule-making in the maritime industry in line with contemporary developments, understanding and expectations. This was the culmination of more than 50 years of work, one of the longest gestation periods of any other safety regulation. Considering that this is indeed, a step change in the way safety is being addressed and regulated, “taking our time” is well justified (Papanikolaou, 2007). 

Biomechanical Technology for Treating Sox Scrubber Water, Penny, 2014 

Author(s): Penny R Published: 5/19/2014 

Shipboard Scrubber Systems - Exhaust Gas Cleaning(EGC) Systems or Scrubbers are an approved alternative to low sulfur fuel. – Scrubbers remove Sox and other contaminants from the engine exhaust emissions with an alkli water-stream. – Existing water treatment technologies are being introduced to remove oils and PAHs to regulatory limits. 

Probabilistic Fire Safety Assessment of Passenger Ships, Themelis, 2012

Author(s): Nikos Themelis and Kostas J. Spyrou Published: 4/23/2014  

In the maritime sector, fire safety is principally governed by the prescriptive regulation framework of SOLAS Chapter II -2 (IMO 2009) and the Fire Safety Systems Code (IMO 2007). Nevertheless, modern large passenger ships feature several space innovations accruing from designer`s liberty to follow alternative “equivalent safety” design practices. This route was enabled by IMO`s MSC/Circular 1002 (IMO 2001a) that, collectively with a number of technical guidelines (ISO 1999; SPFE 2002; ABS 2004), opened up the era of performance-based fire safety assessment of ships. The emerging practice in this frame of mind is to evaluate trial designs and arrangements against certain fire safety objectives that are consistent with the SOLAS requirements, assessing performance with respect to a set of “representative” design fir scenarios.

Uncertainties in the Wind-Heel Analysis of Traditional Sailing Vessels: The Challenges it Presents for Forensic Analysis of Sailing Vessel Incidents, Johnson, 2013 

Author(s): Johnson B, ,Lasher W, Erdman M, ,Miles J, Curry W Published: 4/15/2015 

Various efforts to provide a basis for operator guidance for traditional sailing vessels have been made since the pioneering work of Beebe-Center and Brooks (1966-67), research which led to many of the current pass/fail rules and guidelines. Typical Stability Letters, however, provide no operator guidance and only discuss the stability limitations of a vessel from a pass/fail point of view. The analysis of the Pride of Baltimore I casualty be Chatterton and Maxham (1989) and discussed further in Parrott (2004) examined capsize and sinking events caused by extreme wind conditions.

The Herald of Free Enterprise Casualty and Its Effect Upon Maritime Safety Philosophy, Gill, 2012

Author(s): Geoffrey W. Gill and Christoph M. Wahner Published: 4/22/2014 

In the 1987 disaster involving the British ro-ro passenger and freight ferry Herald of Free Enterprise, organizational knowledge of deficiencies in procedures and equipment existed alarmingly high at the managerial level well before the casualty. These deficiencies went insufficiently addressed as a result of systematic organizational failures, as well as a lagging shore side safety culture and shipboard climate. The Herald disaster resulted in the death of at least 150 passengers and 38 crew, the highest peacetime loss of life from any commercial British vessel since the loss of Titanic in 1912. This high loss of life from a casualty to a vessel registered by a historically respected maritime nation resulted in an industry-changing comprehensive investigation and follow up. A formal Court inquiry under British Lord Justice Sir Barry Sheen was initiated within 60 days of the casualty and the investigatory report was published by Her Majesty`s Stationery Office in 1987 (the “Sheen Report”). The Sheen report is the foundation for much Herald commentary, and this paper draws heavily from that Report.

Channel Design and Vessel Maneuverability: Next Steps, GRAY, 2003 

Author(s): Gray W O; Waters J K; Blume A L; Landsburg A C Published: 3/31/2003  

Most American are blithely unaware that international commerce is approaching 25% of gross domestic product(GDP), which is the world`s largest, and that 95% of U.S. foreign commerce is transported by ship. This figure is expected to double by 2020. Many Americans do not know, or care, that this marine trade involves not only desirable consumer goods, but also much of our food and over 60% of the petroleum we consume. So why should U.S citizens care whether our nation`s channels can accommodate the ships that carry so much of the trade that fuels the U.S. economy? If ships unexpectedly could no longer transit our waterways, the nation would experience shortages of power, heat, and food within days or weeks…

Motions of Ships in Confused Seas, DENIS, 1953 

Author(s): Denis M St; Pierson W J Published: 12/31/1952

The purpose of this paper is to integrate the results of Weinblum and St. Denis, of Rice, of Tukey and Hamming and of Pierson in the endeavor to satisfy the comments made in 1950. To this end rigorous statistical definition will be given of sea condition: one which will bring out the basic difference between a “sea” and a “swell”. The thesis will be then to derive the response of a ship to confused seas, whether these be composed of storm waves or of swells.

Cargo Ship Bunker Tanks: Designing to Mitigate Oil Spillage, MICHEL, 1999

Author(s): Keith Michel, Thomas S. Winslow Published: 5/12/1999 

In the wake of the Exxon Valdez spill and the subsequent passage of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA`90), there has been a dramatic reduction in the spillage of oil from tankers in U.S. waters. During the 1990s. the annual spill volume from tankers has been less than one0thnth of the spill volume experienced during the 1980s. At the same time, recent fuel oil spills from freighters involved in collisions, allisions, and groundings have raised awareness of the risk of oil spills from bunker tanks.

The Development and Application of High Efficiency Nozzles and Rudders, GRUZLING, 2004 

Author(s): Gruzling J Published: 12/31/2003 

During the 1930`s Kort was attempting to solve the problem of propeller wash causing soil erosion of riverbanks. According to propeller momentum, theory only half of the increase in velocity of the propeller slipstream occurs at the propeller disk. The other half occurs in the slipstream behind the propeller. Kort reasoned that if he could prevent this slipstream contraction, the speed of the propeller wash would be reduced and with it the damage to riverbanks. Placing a tube around the propeller tips would prevent slipstream, contraction. To avoid flow separation on the leading edge of the tube, Kort flared the tube outward and added an outside cone. This altered tube became known as the Kort nozzle.