Research produces a variety of results that is used by all of the other Faces of SNAME. Teaching, is driven in large part by the results of research.  This can be the start of the lifecycle of maritime and offshore assets and supporting activities.  In this view research touches teaching, and teaching in turn touches students, designers and engineers.


Educator/Researcher Papers

Our Technical Library contains thousands of papers of interest to Educators/Researchers. Below is a sample of papers that are available for access to members by using a free download or to non-members for purchase.

Reaching Out to the Future Generation of Shipbuilders and Shipbuilding Leaders, SKIBA, 2008 

Author(s): C Skiba, R Boutwell and W Boze Published: 12/31/2007 

Motive behind the competition
The Bureau of labor and Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor (2008) projects nearly an eleven percent need in growth for engineers from 2006 to 2016. Contained within this prediction is an eleven percent growth for marine engineers and naval architects due to (1) a strong demand for naval and recreational vessels in the future, (2) growth in employment as the result of the need to replace workers who retire or take other jobs, and (3) the limited number of students pursuing careers in this occupation. Yet, the United States ranks 4th (behind Russia, Israel, and Canada) in the population ages 25-64 with any postsecondary science or engineering degree (including 2-year and 4-year or higher degrees), and it ranks 10th (behind Russia, Canada Japan, Israel, South Korea, Sweden, Belgium, Ireland, and Norway) in the population ages 25-34 with any postsecondary science or engineering degree (National Science Board, 2008). Long gone are the days when the number of students entering engineering curriculums directly tracked the funding for the Apollo program or even the defense budget of the Reagan administration. Fortunately, the projected growth in engineering demand and the decline in students pursuing degrees leading to careers in the marine industry have prompted several organizations to take proactive steps….

Training of Ship Operators: The Marriage of Theoretical and Practical Education, FEMENIA, 1979

Author(s): Femenia J; Zubaly R B Published: 4/24/1979 

Historical development of training programs for ship operators has progressed from apprentice programs to the scientifically oriented programs necessary to support the technologically- based specialized marine industry of today. The education of ship-operator has characteristically followed two distinct and relatively independent tracks – DECK and ENGINE. The aim of the early programs was to train individuals for Third Mate and Third Assistant Engineer licenses and thereby supply the easygoing phase of the industry with qualified operators. These training programs evolved into educational programs that augmented the training courses with business courses to give Third Mates a better understanding of marine transportation and added basic engineering courses to give the operating marine engineers a more thorough understanding of the power plants and to prepare them for new plants to come….

Addressing the Management Education Needs of the Maritime Industry, LINSNER, 1997 

Author(s): Linsner E W; Murray W G Published: 4/30/1997 

Webb Institute is the oldest school devoted to naval architecture and marine engineering in the United States. The aim of its program is to provide a general engineering education while simultaneously providing professional competence in naval architecture and marine engineering. To this end, its undergraduate curriculum is designed to fully prepare its graduates to directly enter into the practice of their profession or to go forward to graduate work. To understand the reason for the existence of this very unusual college, one must know something about the background of its founder, William H. Webb and conditions existing in the maritime industry at the time he endowed what would eventually become Webb institute…

Cooperative Teaching of Ocean Engineering Capstone Design Course by Industry and Academia, RANDALL, 2005 

Author(s): Randall R E Published: 12/31/2004 

The Ocean Engineering Program administers a separate Ocean Engineering degree within the Civil Engineering Department at Texas A&M University. The ocean engineering curriculum requires senior ocean engineering students to complete a 4 credit capstone design course entitled “Design of Ocean Engineering Facilities”. The accreditation organization, ABET, requires a capstone design course that includes team design and design optimization. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the organization of the senior design course, describe the interaction between industry partners and academic faculty, and give some example project results…

Training Shipbuilders with the Classroom of the Future, BOUTWELL, 1994 

Author(s): Boutwell R C; Davis H M Published: 7/31/1994  

The shipbuilding industry faces increasingly competitive markets on a global basis. Lower demand is driving the cost of products down, while business costs continue to rise at a rapid pace. Additionally, customer quality requirements are changing. Industry customers expect delivery of consistently higher quality products with no significant increase in the price of these products. In this environment shipbuilders must use training as a resource to prevent unnecessary rework and lost time, promote flexibility in the workforce, and reduce cost. Employees in a competitive workforce must be able to apply knowledge gained through training to an infinite variety of work situations. To meet these expectations, without significant growth in budget, training departments must adapt available training technology to the unique needs of the shipbuilding and repair industry…

On-Demand Education to Meet Marine Industry Professional Development Needs, BONGIORNI, 1999 

Author(s): Bongiorni B; Spicknall M; Horsmon A; Cohen P Published: 7/31/1999 

Economic, Political, Business, Social, and Technological changes are continually altering the world in which we live, as well as the commercial markets in which we compete. Because of political and business globalization, and raid technological advances, change is occurring at a pace never before experienced. This is not only generally true, but is also true specifically for marine-related enterprises. Examples of recent and ongoing changes that have significant implications for marine-related enterprises include: The economic turmoil in the Far East, OPA 90, Increasing demand for oil along with decreasing reserves, the evolution of markets and industries in Eastern Europe and Chia, Increasing potential for regional versus global military conflicts, Reduction of inventories in manufacturing systems, Increasing traffic congestion in major coastal population centers, and Rapidly evolving information technologies.

Marine Tech Project - Attracting Students Towards Math and Science Careers in Shipbuilding and Repair Industry, VERMA, 2010

Old Dominion University and Longwood University in collaboration with marine industry and local school systems are improving STEM preparation using innovative experiences for teachers in two regions of Virginia, namely, Hampton Roads and Central Virginia. Marine Tech project has served 40 math, science, and technology education teachers from grades 6 through 12 over a period of 1 year by providing 38 hours of summer professional development training. The program included a 2-week long workshop during the summer 2008. Marine Tech’s progressive curriculum covers foundational skills and knowledge of basic physical science as it relates to ship building, through the application of these principles in a culminating ship design competition. The curriculum is enriched with program activities such as field trips to shipbuilding and repair companies, marine science museums and scientific cruise on a research vessel Fay Slover. Participating teachers were trained in curriculum implementation and were given materials and resources necessary to replicate Marine Tech activities in their classrooms. 

On-the-Job Training in Line Heating at Astilleros Españoles Shipyards—a Profitable Experience, SARA 

Author(s): Sarabia A; Bellacasa C P Published: 10/31/1994 

In April 1990 a key document for the ongoing technological change at Astilleros Españoles Shipyards was issued by the group`s top management under the name of POMET, which stands for “Plan Integral de Mejoras Tecnologicas” (Global Plan for Technological Improvement). This document established the Japanese shipbuilding industry as a model of reference, and emphasized its main logic and principles. PIMET consistently recognized accuracy control (A/C) as one of the main elements for achieving world class productivity, and required each one of the group`s shipyards to establish A/C- related projects. One of these projects was the development of the operating capacity for forming plates by line heating, with the purpose of producing accurate parts for the downstream users.

Some Developments in Marine Technology Education in the United Kingdom, BIRMINGHAM, 2001

Author(s): Birmingham R Published: 10/31/2001 

The United Kingdom has on occasion been the world`s naval super-power, the foremost shipbuilding nation the predominant flag in the merchant marine, the leading light in the regulation and classification of sea going vessels, and the technological innovator in the exploration for, and exploitation of, offshore resources. While the United Kingdom (UK) can no longer claim the premier position in these elements of the marine industries, all are still economically important and all contribute to the strong maritime tradition now manifest in the provision of marine expertise to the world. The dissemination and exploitation of this expert knowledge is facilitated in a variety of ways, such as consultancies in design, operations, and management, and also through major international and industry based programs of research. However, it is in the provision of educational programs that are followed by students from many of the maritime nations of the world, that the breadth and depth of experience available in the UK is most clearly demonstrated.

Panel Discussion On the Education of Engineers for the Ocean Industry - Future Trends, OGILVIE, 1977 

Author(s): Ogilvie T F; Dyer I; Payne C N Published: 6/30/1977  

Some people succeed in the marine field in spite of their educations. But the marine field cannot be successful as a whole in serving the needs of the nation and or world commerce unless good education is provided to young people entering the field. This statement can be turned around to express the goal of education in the marine field: To provide the academic foundations required so that the U.S. marine industry -both civil and military- can establish and maintain the United States as the world leader in marine commerce, in exploitation of the seas, and in naval power. Thus education for the marine field is a service function. It cannot be justified in any other senses.

Management and Economics in Marine Engineering Curriculum, BUTMAN, 1997 

Author(s): Butman B Published: 4/30/1997 

Few people would doubt that the current financial difficulties of the Maritime Industry might be attributed, in large part, to a shortage of economic and managerial skills on various levels of management. Although many advanced training courses are being arranged by the companies for their employees, the results are not very encouraging due to the fact that the basic economic and management training at the Maritime colleges and academies is not sufficient. It is usually only deck cadets who, in practice, learn some basic economics. Engineering programs are normally more condensed, and a common believe is that there is not enough time for anything else but the established curriculum…

Ready to Design a Naval Ship? - Prove It! KEANE, 2008 

Author(s): B Keane, H Fireman, J Hough, D Helgerson, C Whitcomb Published: 12/31/2007  

Recently, the occurrence of serious design deficiencies on a number of naval ship designs which have contributed to significant cost, schedule, and performance problems has reinforced the concern that the naval ship enterprise (Navy-Industry-Academia) is losing the “recipe” for developing cost-effective warships. Lean Product Development (LPD) Guru Reinertsen (1997) defines recipe as ingredients and methods: “The ingredients of design are budget dollars, manpower, and technologies to be used. The method of using these ingredients in the process. This process defines which activities should take place, the sequence of these activities, and who should do them… We need to find some way to preserve what we have learned without discouraging people from doing innovative things. The secret to accomplishing this is to concentrate at the right level of the process architecture.”

Innovation in MET and Certification of Ship Superintendents, SARMA, 2005 

Author(s): Swapan Das Sarma Published: 10/10/2005 

Maritime Training has its foundations in “apprenticeship” that evolved from the time of the sailing ship. Some of this foundation remains valid in our current IMO-STW (international Maritime Organization – Standers for Training and Watch-Keeping) system; in particular, the use of the Training Assessment Record Book(TARB) for Cadet training and clocking of sea-time as a requirement towards Certificates of Competency (CoC) awards. “Learning from the seniors” to perform an on-board task was the best form of training: of late we are calling it a “competency”- based approach to education. One of the changing trends in education is to go from pure classroom-based courses to “collaborative learning” where emphasis is placed on training students “how to learn” from a variety of knowledge resources…

Amplification of Ship Generated Wake Wash Due to Coastal Effects, ALLENSTROM, 2003 

Author(s): Allenstrom B; Anderasson H; Leer-Andersen M; Li D Published: 12/31/2002 

Wake wash is a well-known problem in most coastal areas around the world, and wash waves from high speed craft have often been pointed out as a high risk for both people and the coastal environment. In a project recently carried out in Sweden wake wash from both high speed crafts and large ferries was studied regarding the effect on the environment in archipelagos. Special interest was directed towards the long periodic waves caused by large ferries, especially effects like drawdown and seiches in bays. To understand this problem better, model tests were carried out in the seakeeping basin at SSPA using a ropax passing a rectangular bay. In the bay, and at the entrance to the bay, six wave probes were placed and the events were video filmed. To be able to conclude what the amplified effects due to the bay are the test data gave been analysed extensively…

Estimates of Long-Term Combined Wave Bending and Whipping for Two Alternative Hull Forms, KIM, 2011

Author(s): KIM Published: 12/31/2010 

The surface ship structural design criteria that are typically applied were introduced more than 50 years ago (Heller, 1954). At that time, the knowledge of ship structure interaction with the sea environment was in its infancy. Sea state characterization was undefined, analytic methods were virtually non-existent, and the application of probabilistic theory to the sea keeping and loads problem was just emerging. In addition, since load magnitudes were unknown, fatigue life assessments were not feasible. With little or no computational capability, most predictions were done manually. Therefore, ship design criteria had to be simplified to allow for timely iterations of the design and to reduce the computational burden.

Study on the Characteristics of Self-propulsion Factors of Planing Craft with Outboard Engine, Katayama, 2012

Author(s): Toru Katayama,Yoshitaka Nishihara, and Takuya Sato Published: 4/22/2014  

Reduction of environmental impact of small craft is as important as it is for conventional vessels.  So, it is important to consider various improvements for reduction of fuel consumption as one of ways.  It is well known (e.g. Hadler, 1986) that the fuel consumption of a vessel is composed of the interactions of the hull, propulsion and engine. In order to improve the fuel consumption, it is necessary to consider their characteristics. However, in the case of small craft with outboard engine, its hull and outboard engine are developed by individual companies, usually. Therefore, the fuel consumption of the craft may not be optimized. In order to estimate the fuel consumption, a propulsive performance estimation method for planning craft with outboard engine has been proposed by Katayama et al., (2007) based on the running attitude & resistance simulation of planning craft (Yokomizo et al., 1992) (Ikeda et al., 1995). However, in the optimization of fuel consumption, the method does not consider the effects of propeller action, which is well known as the self-propulsion factors for conventional vessels, enough under the assumption that its effects are negligible.

Development of Reliability Based Classification Rules for Tankers, SPENCER, 2003 

Author(s): Spencer J S; Wirsching P H; Wang X; Mansour A E Published: 12/31/2002 

Probability based design has the promise of producing well designed systems, I.e., structures having optimized design and/or improved reliability relative to design based on conventional practices. The basic advantage of probability based design is the inclusion of more information into the design process that is not generally included in conventional design procedures. Not only are basic geometric characteristics of the structure considered, but also considered. Probability based design allows the engineer, through good judgment, to design on the basis of a target reliability for the structure thus designing a more efficient structure.

Hydrodynamic Investigation of the Ballast-Free Ship Concept, KOTINIS, 2007

Author(s): Kotinis M; Parsons M G Published: 12/31/2006 

The detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects of the introduction of nonindigenous aquatic species into coastal waters have motivated the international maritime regulatory bodies to adopt strict regulations in order to control and eventually eliminate this phenomenon. The international Maritime Organization (IMO) has recently adopted new regulations (IMO 2004) applicable to both new and existing vessels that conduct ballast operations. These regulations mandate the utilization of a ballast water treatment system and prescribe strict limits regarding the concentration of viable organisms in the discharged ballast water. The new IMO ballast water convention extends the biota control to sizes between 50 and 10 microns and adds specific requirements for selected smaller pathogens…

Aspects of Simplified Hull Forms--Past, Present, and Future, KISS, 1972 

Author(s): Kiss R K Published: 9/30/1972  

Through all the thousands of years comprising the evolution of hull form, designers and constrictors nearly always endowed their designs with one characteristic; an underwater hull shape intended to pass through the water as easily as possible. Exceptions exist, such as barges for storage or work platforms, but any vessel intended for frequent or prolonged voyages must cut through the water as easily as possible consistent with its mission.

Workshop on the Role of Hydrodynamics and the Hydrodynamicist in Ship Bridge Simulator Training

Author(s): Panel H-10 Ship Controllability Published: 9/30/1993

The purpose of this workshop was to discuss and develop information in the area of maneuvering mathematical modeling helpful to the Marine Board Study Committee on “Ship Bridge Simulation Training.” This committee was studying the application of simulation to training of deck officers, a project emanating from the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. A copy of the project Statement of Task addressed by this committee is provided in Appendix A of this report.